MSA Turns 60

December 2016 marks 60 years since the first meeting of the Malacological Society of Australasia. In honour of our birthday, we’ll be posting a new fact each week to showcase discoveries, events, and people that have shaped malacology over the years.

We’re asking all members to dig into their archives and memory banks and send ideas and photos to

To see the fun facts each week, like us on Facebook or follow @MalSocAus on Twitter. Postings will also be made here periodically.


Launched in 1998, the Australian Museum’s online Sea Slug Forum, authored by Dr. Bill Rudman, was a fantastic vehicle for the exchange of ideas, images and knowledge about sea slugs. Bringing science, interactively, to a vast audience, the Forum was prolific, with a total of 14,523 messages posted during its active life. Due to costs associated with managing online security, the site ceased to be updated in 2010, however as a static site even today it remains a highly important resource for many users. For many, the beauty of the site is its usefulness in bringing sometimes complex taxonomic and morphological data into the amateur realm, using clear and often beautiful imagery, at no cost, in easy to understand terms. The site itself is capacious and yet remains easily navigated and the content, although more than 15 years old in some cases, remains useful and highly accessible. Whilst some messages are seemingly pedestrian, others contain hitherto unknown facts, and perhaps better still, important discoveries.

Home page of the Sea Slug Forum


The first issue of The Victorian Branch Bulletin of the Malacological Society of Australasia appeared on 19th August 1968. The Bulletin continues to the present time and is available on the MSA website.

First page of the first issue of the MSA Victorian Branch Bulletin in 1968

Imagine if simply touching something could send you into a fit of rage? Scott Cummins (University of the Sunshine Coast) and a team of researchers discovered that female squid (Loligo pealeii) line their eggs with a pheromone, ß-MSP. Males are visually attracted to the egg capsules, and, upon touching them, become extremely aggressive– fighting off other male squid. Females mate and lay multiple egg masses within a short period, and it is thought that this phenomenon evolved as a means to ensure that the females mate with the most vigorous competitors. Interestingly, a similar protein to the aggression pheromone is also found in mammals – but, as yet, no one knows what it does. The findings were published in Current Biology in 2011.

Spawning squid


The native flat oyster (Ostraea angasi) is one of our tasty summer treats, but it may also be the source of modern Australian fisheries law. The oyster dominated temperate reefs at the turn of the 20th century but soon after became the target of overfishing. South Australian scientists Heidi Alleway and Sean Connell have hypothesised that the oyster’s collapse attracted the first Australian fisheries legislation to control takes and designate conservation areas.

Ostraea angasi from Molluscs of Tasmania, Photo Simon Grove


In 1960 Australian Malacologist Bob Burn published a note in Nature that he had collected a live specimen of the unusual bivalve species Berthelinia typica (Gatliff & Gabriel, 1911) know previously from shells and fossil records. To his great surprise, this bivalved shell had a little gastropod inside, with a sweet little gastropod face and all! Bob was amongst the first to observe and record the existence of these tiny, cryptic, bivalved gastropods (Family Juliidae). The occurrence of such gastropods have significant implications for evolutionary theories within the Mollusca, including how and when true bivalves evolved and the emergence of symmetry within gastropods. This beauty Berthelinia limax (Kawaguti & Baba, 1959) was captured in a rockpool by one of our key members Matt Nimbs in January last year!

Berthelinia limax (left) and newly settled Berthelinia juvenile (right), Photos by Matt Nimbs, Carmel McDougall


Well over a century ago Australian malacological history occurred in 1894 in South Australia, when at 8pm on the 20th September Sir Joseph Verco commenced the first meeting of the Malacological Society in the rooms of the Royal Society of South Australia.? Other notable persons present included Professor R. Tate, Mr J. Adcock, Mr. W. T. Adcock, Dr. Perks, Dr. Cleland, Dr. R. H. Pulleine, Mr. W. Reed and Miss Stowe.?? We consider this meeting to be the formation of the first such group outside of the UK and notably the first in Australia. Beyond the main group, the enduring reference specimen collection now stands and includes much of Verco’s initial collection and reference material, as well as subsequent personal contributions and donations by the many that followed.

Sir Joseph Verco (left) and original Minutes from the first Australian malacology meeting (right), photos sourced by Peter Hunt

The use of tools by animals is considered a hallmark of intelligence, but observations of this had previously been restricted to mammals and birds. In 2009, a team of Australian malacologists observed the Veined Octopus (Amphioctopus marginatus) carrying coconut shell halves to use as impromptu protection when needed. The paper was published in the scientific journal Current Biology in 2009 and is the first reported use of tools in invertebrates. Watch the video here.

Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis against the backdrop of Lord Howe Island, Photo Caitlin Woods

The publication of ‘Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis’ in 1998 was a huge achievement in Australasian Malacology. This incredibly ambitious, 2 volume work compiled and synthesised knowledge of morphology, physiology, natural history, biogeography and phylogeny at multiple levels of classification within the Mollusca. With contributions from 70 authors it is the most comprehensive and authoritative treatment yet of Australia’s freshwater, marine and terrestrial molluscs and still has relevance and utility well beyond Australia.

Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis against the backdrop of Lord Howe Island, Photo Caitlin Woods

Week 1: Happy 60th birthday to the MSA!
December 2016 marks 60 years since the inaugural AGM of the Malacological Society of Australia (later known as the Malacological Society of Australasia). The MSA was formed from its predecessor, the Malacological Club of Victoria, and several founding members have been honoured in nudibranch names (photo below of Phyllodesmium macphersonae named after Hope Macpherson). The MSA Newsletter (issue 159) has more information about the MSA’s early days, as we sift through some amazing archives from the past 60+ years.

Phyllodesmium macpersonae, named after early MSA Member Hope Macpherson, photo by Platon Vafiadis